About AINW

Archaeological Investigations Northwest, Inc. (AINW), founded in June, 1989, provides the full spectrum of cultural resource consulting services to both public and private sector clients in the Pacific Northwest. For over three decades, AINW has conducted more than 3,000 cultural resource projects that encompass the breadth of cultural resource disciplines: archaeology, architectural history, history, and ethnography. Most of these projects have been done to meet the compliance regulations of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act and documentation for Environmental Assessments (EA) and Environmental Impact Statements (EIS), and for local and state agency review of development and energy projects.

AINW also conducts lithic analysis for other firms and provides training in lithic technology. AINW’s blood residue analysis laboratory has conducted several hundred individual studies in the past two decades.

AINW’s staff of approximately 30 employees includes more than 20 professional archaeologists, architectural historians, and historians. These include staff specialists in faunal analysis, human osteology, lithic analysishistoric artifact analysis, and specialists in blood residue analysisGIS/graphics, and report production. Supporting all is our very capable administrative staff.


Archaelogists screening in Pacific Northwest snow

AINW is among the most highly qualified cultural resource management (CRM) firms in the western United States and offers the most capacity of any CRM firm in the northwest. The company provides archaeological, historical, architectural history, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and specialized laboratory services. AINW has more than three decades of cultural resource experience regarding a wide range of regulatory compliance and cultural resource projects.

AINW professional staff have extensive training and experience with federal, state, and local cultural resource laws, regulations, guidelines, and procedures. Our staff includes specialists in prehistoric and historic-period archaeology, historical research, architectural history, faunal analysis, historic artifact analysis, lithic technology, GIS, human osteology, and blood residue analysis. We also have a skilled technical and support staff involved in field archaeology, laboratory analysis, and report and graphics production.


All of AINW’s senior and supervisory staff meet the Professional Qualifications of the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards and Guidelines for Archaeology and Historic Preservation (36 CFR 61, Appendix A) and have completed training in implementation of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Several staff have completed training in the National Environmental Policy Act, Section 4(f), and historic landscape evaluation.

AINW’s professional staff includes  more than 20 archaeologists, and 4 architectural historians and historians.

AINW’s professional staff includes 6 Ph.D. archaeologists and 15 M.A.-level archaeologists.  In all,  16 are Registered Professional Archaeologists.


Among our professional archaeological staff are experts and specialists in:

Our architectural historians have expertise in:

  • Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) and Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) documentation
  • Photographic recordation of standing structures for mitigation of effects and assessment of historic buildings, structures, and districts for National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) eligibility.
  • Preparation of NRHP forms
  • Assessment of project effects following federal and state guidelines and procedures.

Our facility houses two laboratories, a research library, and offices for the administrative and operations staff.


AINW’s modern laboratory is capable of analyzing, processing, and storing multiple collections of artifacts and associated archaeological materials.  Laboratory staff adhere to federal standards for processing, storing, and preparing materials and associated records for curation.  The AINW lab also maintains comparative collections including faunal materials and experimental lithic materials.Arch Lab 1

Arch Lab 2

AINW has a Blood Residue Analysis Laboratory, which conducts analyses to detect animal blood residues on stone (and other) artifact surfaces.

Learn more about our Residue Analysis Lab

Library Resources

New LibraryAINW has a large research library with extensive materials regarding Pacific Northwest archaeology, history, ethnography, historic artifact identification, and related disciplines (geology, biology, osteology, and botany).  Our library collection contains over 4,000 publications as well as site forms and map files (USGS and historical maps).  AINW also has a collection of rare documents and primary sources not readily available elsewhere. Our library contains books, published reports, and reference materials covering the following topics:

  • Columbia River Gorge History
  • Architecture and Historical Architecture
  • Transportation and Railway History
  • Oregon City Histories
  • Oregon Counties Histories
  • Washington History
  • Portland History
  • Willamette Valley History
  • Portland Basin and Lower Columbia History
  • Oregon Cascades Archaeology
  • Oregon Coast Archaeology
  • Oregon Plateau Archaeology
  • Southern Oregon Archaeology
  • Western Washington Archaeology
  • Clark County Archaeology and History
  • Faunal Analysis and Osteology
  • Geology and soil surveys
  • Vegetation/Flora
  • Historic Merchandise Catalogs
  • Historic Sites
  • Artifact Identification (ceramic, glass, metal, other)
  • Obsidian studies
  • Great Plains/Eastern States Archaeology
  • Washington Plateau Archaeology
  • Northwest Coast, Idaho, and Canada
  • Archaeology and History
  • Government Programs and Agency
  • Histories
  • Historical Archaeology
  • Prehistoric Archeology
  • Cultural Resource Management
  • State and Regional Geographic References
  • Agriculture, Ranching, and Irrigation
  • American West & Pacific Northwest
  • Early Northwest Explorers
  • Barlow Road & Pioneer Trails
  • Genealogy
  • Lithic Technology

To ensure our staff has access to the most current information and developments in the field of archaeology and other related disciplines, AINW subscribes to a wide variety of local, regional, and national journals and professional publications.

AINW has created base maps for Clark County, Washington, that have the locations of all recorded archaeological sites and all archaeological surveys filed prior to 2010.  The Washington State Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation has recorded survey locations beginning in 1997.  AINW’s records are more comprehensive than those of DAHP for the period prior to 1997.

Graphics/GIS Department

AINW’s Graphics/GIS (Geographic Information Systems) personnel are highly skilled and experienced in the use of ESRI ArcGIS Suite, and AutoCAD LT technologies, as well as complete raster and vector editing software. Our Graphics/GIS personnel are also proficient with other essential in-house resources that include historic maps, LIDAR imaging, aerial imaging, Trimble GPS and TDS data, and digital datasets for all northwest states.

Using this array of technology, AINW’s Graphics/GIS team produces a wide range of graphic content, such as:

  • Site maps
  • Plot and site plans
  • Stratigraphic profiles
  • Data overlays
  • Historic map overlays
  • Architectural sketch plans
  • Artifact photos and images
  • Historic photos
  • Archaeological feature diagrams
  • GIS spatial analysis
  • Other essential report graphics

In addition, AINW’s Graphics/GIS team creates maps that are geospatially accurate and work in conjunction with state-of-the-art Trimble GPS and Total Station Equipment.


Jo Reese, M.A., R.P.A.

Jo Reese

AINW Corporate President and Senior Archaeologist. Ms. Reese is a co-founder/owner of AINW. She started her archaeological career in 1975 and has focused on the field of cultural resource management.She has worked on many cultural resource projects throughout Oregon and Washington, plus others in California and Nevada. Her areas of archaeological specialization include the environmental setting of prehistoric settlements, especially geoarchaeology and prehistory of the Columbia River. She has extensive knowledge of regulatory requirements in the Pacific Northwest.  jo@ainw.com

John L. Fagan, Ph.D., R.P.A.

John Fagan

AINW Corporate Vice President, Senior Archaeologist, and Lithic Technology Specialist. Dr. Fagan, co-founder/owner of AINW, began his professional career in 1965 and has several decades of experience in archaeology of the Pacific Northwest and the western United States. He has directed numerous projects throughout the region. Dr. Fagan’s 15-year tenure as District Archaeologist for the Portland District of the Corps of Engineers provided him with considerable knowledge of federal cultural resource programs and requirements. He is a recognized authority on lithic analysis and replication of stone tools.  john@ainw.com

AINW & Sustainability

The City of Portland has recognized AINW for its commitment to Sustainability!

2019 Debris Champions

2019 Debris Champions

The City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services has declared AINW a Debris Champion for our continued care of our adopted water quality feature near the AINW building. AINW staff has kept the feature debris-free and in top working order for years. (The donuts that came with the certificate were a delicious touch!)

Silver Sustainability

Sustainability at Work Certified

The City of Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability has certified AINW at the Silver level for Sustainability at Work. AINW’s wide-ranging sustainability policies include minimizing electrical usage, recycling and composting waste, and using post-consumer materials wherever possible.